A cure for LUPUS which Is Pellagra Is to take enough niacinamide which is also a cure for arthritis, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, Gout, heel spurs, depression, COPD, calluses, bunions, joint dysfunction.

 

Dr. Doctors who are wrongly taught that pellagra no longer exists. Internet pictures of lupus and pellagra are the same. The problem is a lack of vitamin B3 niacinamide. Drug companies cannot develop chemicals to take the place of niacinamide.

 

 Dr. Newman, so it is not unreasonable to assume that Boron may also help with the correct cellular uptake of minerals and trace elements into the cells. All types of arthritis may be helped by Boron and also systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Learn more about Boron here.

  

Click on my web pobrien48.com The cure is to take enough niacinamide. The first  pictures is pellagra.t the next is lupus. Click here to learn more about vitamin B3 niacinamide

  

I am quite sure that lupus can be cured using proper mega

 doses of vitamins and minerals much like I was able to cure

my pellagra.  Lupus and pellagra is very much alike in that

they cause chronic fatigue, kidney problems, dementia,

peripheral neuropathy, skin problems, and inflammation

of the brain, headaches, seizures, strokes, psychosis,

and peripheral neuropathy and in many cases death.

 

My hands were cracked and bled often and 4 doctors did not know I had Pellagra.  I found I had Pellagra on the internet and am now totally cured without my doctor recommended knee or shoulder replaced and the pain is gone. My Pellagra was extreme and would have soon killed me like it did 100,000 people around 1900. . My hands are now completely cured, my body doesn't have pain and in fact, my knee and shoulder that the Dr. said I needed to have replaced are totally cured and I'm able to dance 4 to 6 nights a week.  Six capsules of niacinamide per day totally cured my pellagra and lupus.  Niacinamide also cures schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis and dementia.

 

Study show if you are low on vitamin D you are 8 X more likely to get lupus so you need to take one or two vitamin D3 50,000 units capsules per week. I take three per week.

Lupus again found to be related to vitamin D deficiency - should supplementation start? – May

Lupus flares totally eliminated by loading dose then 100000 IU of vitamin D each month – Oct

Lupus flareups cut in half by just 2,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Dec 20129688

Musculoskeletal pain reduced with 4,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT April 20159620

Vitamin D increasingly associated with inflammation such as RA, TB, Lupus, and cancer – March

Lupus not treated by monthly 50,000 IU vitamin D (no surprise) – RCT April 20156032

Lupus in vicious circle with vitamin D - Nov 20105402

Hypothesis of Autoimmunity which includes Barr Virus and Vitamin D Deficiency – 20125146

Vitamin D deficiency and diabetes – rheumatoid arthritis – lupus – Oct 20105060

 

 

Bromide is needed in the cure of lupus. click here to learn more

 

Low stomach acid causes Acid reflux, Ulcers, inflammatory bowel diseases, Celiac Disease, leaky bowel syndrome, heartburn, leg cramps, broken bones, Alzheimer ’s stomach cancer, esophagus cancer, asthma, fatigue, , back pain and rheumatoid arthritis. weakness and rapid aging.  If your stomach is'n calm you have slow stomach acid. Click Here To Learn More. Acid Lowering drugs like tums and Dr. prescribed PPIs increase the death rate by 50%

 

Definition the symptoms of lupus are quite varied. In discoid lupus, red patches (erythema) appear symmetrically on the cheeks, possibly extending to the face, neck, scalp, and other parts of the body. No organ other than the skin is affected (or the disease is classified as systemic, rather than discoid). Systemic lupus may begin suddenly, signaled by fever, or develop slowly over months or years. Chronic fatigue is a common symptom. Symptoms related to an impairment of any organ may occur. The lupus disease process in a given organ is named after that organ; for example, inflammation of the kidneys is termed lupus nephritis, and inflammation of the brain is termed lupus cerebritis. Kidney involvement may be fatal. Over 50% of all systemic lupus patients in the United States presently have some degree of lupus cerebrates; 25–75% has neuropsychiatric symptoms at some time in their illness.

 

Symptoms of lupus cerebritis may include headaches, seizures, stroke, psychosis, dementia, peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia (failure of muscular coordination, usually on one side of the body), chorea (jerky, involuntary movements), and others. Duration of central nervous system involvement may be transient (as with a migraine headache) or long lasting (as with dementia). Stroke incidence is 3–20% n systemic lupus patients and is highest in the first five years of the disease. Peripheral neuropathy (carpal tunnel syndrome, for example) occurs in more than 20% of systemic lupus patients and cranial nerve palsies occur in 10–15%.this

 

An over-the-counter vitamin in high doses prevented memory loss in mice with Alzheimer's disease, and UC Irvine scientists now are conducting a clinical trial to determine its effect in humans. Niacinamide, a form of vitamin B3, lowered levels of a protein called phosphorylated tau that leads to the development of tangles, one of two brain lesions associated with Alzheimer's disease. The vitamin also strengthened scaffolding along which information travels in brain cells, helping to keep neurons alive and further preventing symptoms in mice genetically wired to develop Alzheimer's.

 

 "Niacinamide has a very robust effect on neurons," said Kim Green, UCI scientist and lead author of the study. "Niacinamide prevents loss of cognition in mice with Alzheimer's disease, and the beauty of it is we already are moving forward with a clinical trial."

Scientists found that the niacinamide-treated animals had dramatically lower levels of the tau protein that leads to the Alzheimer's tangle lesion. The vitamin did not affect levels of the protein beta amyloid, which clumps in the brain to form plaques, the second type of Alzheimer's lesion.

 

 Niacinamide, they found, led to an increase in proteins that strengthen microtubules, the scaffolding within brain cells along which information travels. When this scaffolding breaks down, the brain cells can die. Neuronal death leads to dementia experienced by Alzheimer's patients.

 

 "Microtubules are like highways inside cells. What we're doing with niacinamide is making a wider, more stable highway," Green said. "In Alzheimer's disease, this highway breaks down. We are preventing that from happening."

 

 The study appeared online Nov. 5, 2008, in the Journal of Neuroscience.

   Diabetes Type I Niacinamide improves ATP mitochondrial production in the face of diabetogenic chemicals and thus allows Islet cells to stay alive. The Type I honeymoon period can just be extended 12-18 months and insulin requirements may be less.

 

 Mental Anxiety The textbook description of anxiety neurosis exactly matches the symptoms of vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency: hyperactivity, depression, fatigue, apprehension, headache, and insomnia. It has been shown in animals to work in the brain in ways similar to drugs such as benzodiazepines (Valium-type drugs) that are used to treat anxiety. One study found that niacinamide (not niacin) could help people get through withdrawal from benzodiazepines, which is a common problem. A reasonable amount of niacinamide to take for anxiety, according to some doctors, is up to 500mg four times per day.

 

 Niacinamide locks onto the same receptor sites in the brain as do tranquilizers such as Valium, and is a natural tranquilizer. The manufacturer of valium is also the world’s largest manufacturer of niacinamide. [Nature 278: pp.563-65,1979]

 

   Poor Sense of Humor Early signs of Vitamin B3 (Niacin) depletion includes the loss of a sense of humor.

 

 -Skeletal  Osteoarthritis Results may be seen in 3-4 weeks with a plateau of improvement reached at 12 weeks. The dose may be lowered at this time but if discontinued, the symptoms will come back. Intake of 500mg 3-6 times daily has commonly been recommended. Sustained release forms require less frequent dosing.[ Inflame Res 1996;45: pp.330-4]

 Wayne Jonas from the NIH Office of Alternative Medicine conducted a 12 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 72 patients to assess the validity of Dr. Kaufman’s earlier work with niacinamide and osteoarthritis. Using a dose of 3 grams of niacinamide per day, they found that overall disease severity was reduced by 29%, inflammation was reduced by 22% and the use of anti-inflammatory medication was reduced by 13%. Patients taking the placebo, on the other hand, either had no improvement or actually worsened.

 

   Cirrhosis of the Liver Niacinamide can protect the liver against alcohol-induced damage.

 

   Diabetes Type II Niacinamide improves ATP mitochondrial production in the face of diabetogenic chemicals and thus allows insulin-producing cells of the pancreas to stay alive longer. In one trial, newly diagnosed patients were given niacinamide at 25mg per kg of body weight. This restored the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas in some, slowed the cellular destruction in others and left a number no longer diabetic. Use in diabetic patients should always be monitored by a physician as insulin requirements may change.

 

   Decreased Risk of Alzheimer's / Dementia An over-the-counter vitamin in high doses prevented memory loss in mice with Alzheimer's disease, and UC Irvine scientists now are conducting a clinical trial to determine its effect in humans.

 

 Niacinamide leads to the development of tangles, one of two brain lesions associated with Alzheimer's disease. The vitamin also strengthened scaffolding along which information travels in brain cells, helping to keep neurons alive and further preventing symptoms in mice genetically wired to develop Alzheimer's.

 

 "Niacinamide has a very robust effect on neurons," said Kim Green, UCI scientist and lead author of the study. "Niacinamide prevents loss of cognition in mice with Alzheimer's disease, and the beauty of it is we already are moving forward with a clinical trial."

 

 Scientists found that the niacinamide animals had dramatically lower levels of the tau protein that leads to the Alzheimer's tangle lesion. The vitamin did not affect levels of the protein beta amyloid, which clumps in the brain to form plaques, the second type of Alzheimer's lesion.

 Niacinamide, they found, led to an increase in proteins that strengthen microtubules, the scaffolding within brain cells along which information travels. When this scaffolding breaks down, the brain cells can die. Neuronal death leads to dementia experienced by Alzheimer's patients.

 

 "Microtubules are like highways inside cells. What we're doing with niacinamide is making a wider, more stable highway," Green said. "In Alzheimer's disease, this highway breaks down. We are preventing that from happening."

 

 Click here to learn Niacinamide reduces pain and does a lot more

 

Her father an MD didn't know that vitamins and minerals could cure his daughter so she was forced to stay in a psychiatric ward for 14 years, do to this doctor’s incompetence.  Doctors don't know everything. Dr. Larson inferred niacinamide and cured her.

. Dr. Abram Hoffer: For schizophrenics, with mega doses of niacinamide, the recovery rate is 90%. With prescription drugs, it is less than 10%. If you use just drugs, you won't get well. This is because mental illness is usually biochemical illness. Mental illness is a disorder of brain dysfunction. Schizophrenia is vitamin B3 (niacinamide) dependency. Not a deficiency; a dependency. If schizophrenia strikes someone at age 25, he's finished. That is if he's only given drugs. Patients are given drugs and released.

 

Low stomach acid causes Acid reflux, Ulcers, inflammatory bowel diseases, Celiac Disease, leaky bowel syndrome, heartburn, leg cramps, broken bones, Alzheimer ’s stomach cancer, esophagus cancer, asthma, fatigue, back pain.  macular Degeneration and rheumatoid arthritis. weakness and rapid aging.  If your stomach isn't calm you have slow stomach acid.

 

You must have enough stomach acid to digest your food to get vitamins and minerals into your blood. Or your body takes calcium and other things from your bones and cartilage causing you to have operations,

 

To increase stomach acid take 1 or more TBS apple cider vinegar with mother, ¼ tsp. Stevia a sweetener that kills Lyme and other diseases along with a quarter teaspoon of pure powder vitamin C in a half glass of water or cider with each meal to increase the acid content in your stomach so your stomach starts digesting your food getting minerals and vitamins into your blood. The taste is quite good. Vitamin C Powder -- 5000 mg - 8 oz $6.70 at Amazon   Stevia Sweetener, 16 oz $6.98 at amazon

Click here to find What and where to Purchase and how much to take to cure almost all health problems including lupus.

 

The new mental hospital today is the streets or prisons.

Over 440,000 people with schizophrenia are now in jails not being treated. About 45,000 are in hospital mental wards, lot more are from prisons and now on the streets. One out of four people in hospitals are there for psychiatric reasons. Most of these people could be cured by getting them to take mega doses of niacinamide to make them into productive citizens who pay taxes and live good lives. This would close a lot of prisons, empty hospitals and save our government billions of dollars.  

 

Video-- Niacinamide totally cured a woman with extreme schizophrenia and how when the parents took her off niacinamide as prescribed by a psychiatrist she ended up back in the corner totally schizophrenic.
 
AWS: What are the alleged "dangers" of mega dose niacinamide therapy?

AH:  Niacinamide is probably not quite as safe as water, but pretty close to it. Patients ask me, "How dangerous is niacinamide therapy?" I answer them, "You are going to live a lot longer. Is that a problem for you?" AWS: Data compiled by the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) indicates that, over the past 25 years, there have been a total of one or two deaths attributed to niacin and none due to niacinamide. When I looked for evidence to substantiate even this very low number of alleged fatalities, it was absent or assumed. AH:

 

There have been no deaths ever from niacinamide. The LD 50 (the dosage that would kill half of those taking it) for dogs is 6000 milligrams per kilogram body weight. That is equivalent to half a pound of niacin per day for a human. No human takes 225 000 milligrams of niacin a day. They would be nauseous long before reaching a harmful dose. The top niacin dose ever was a 16-year-old schizophrenic girl who took 120 tablets (500 mg each) in one day. That is 60 000 mg of niacin. The "voices" she had been hearing were gone immediately. She then took 3000 mg a day to maintain wellness.


Some years ago, as I sat at lunch with Dr. Abram Hoffer, I took some vitamin pills. Dr. Hoffer leaned over towards me and said, "You know, you're going to live a lot longer if you take those." As I looked at him, he added, "I guarantee it. If you don't, come back and tell me."

Dr. Saul tells us the root cause of gun violence and other violence is Pellagra a disorder caused by niacin deficiency, which includes mental symptom such as schizophrenia, and irrational anger, feelings of persecution, mania, depression, alcohol dependency and dementia.

 

Dr. Saul offers a powerful example of how niacinamide helps address violent behavioral problems and/or attention deficit disorders:

"I knew a neighbor who had a boy who was really, really in trouble – constantly in trouble at school, constantly in trouble at home. He was violent. This was really serious. This was more than ADHD. I'm calling it ADHD, because that's what these boy's doctors called it. But the fact is it was far beyond that. Nevertheless, they gave him one of the usual drugs for attention deficit disorder, and it made him worse.

 

So now he was even more violent and even more psychotic. The parents were in a state as you can imagine; the kid's only 13, everything's falling apart at home. They learned about Dr. Hoffer's niacinamide approach. And because it was a child, they figured, 'Well, we'll start him at a lower level.' They gave him 1,500 milligrams a day of niacinamide...

.

... The parents noticed an immediate improvement. Within days, the child was less angry. He was less troubled at school. He was less oppositional. He was less violent. They immediately figured that if a little helped, maybe more would help more. They wouldn't know unless they tried, and they had no other options. Again, medication was making him worse, not better.

They took him totally off of his medication, and they increased his niacinamide to ultimately about 5,000 milligrams a day.

 

They even got the boy's psychiatrist to prescribe niacin, so he could take it at school. The school nurse was giving the boy niacinamide twice a day at school, as well as at home. All of a sudden, calls were coming from the teachers, saying, 'The kid was just transformed. He was doing great.' At home, everything was better.

 

Dr. Saul tells us when vitamin B3 or niacin was first added as an enrichment or as a fortification to flour, about half of the people in mental institutions went home. This is not a well-known fact. They were there not because they were mentally ill – because of genetics, environment, or social reasons – but because they were malnourished, so said the founding father of orthomolecular medicine.

It was nearly 60 years ago when Abram Hoffer and his colleagues began curing schizophrenia with niacin. While some physicians are still waiting, those who have used niacin with patients and families know the immense practical value of what Dr. Hoffer discovered. Abram Hoffer's life has not merely changed the face of psychiatry. He has changed the course of medicine for all time.

 

His 30 books, 600 scientific papers, and thousands of cured patients have yet to convince orthodox medicine. Dr. Hoffer has said that it takes about two generations before a truly new medical idea is accepted. Perhaps in the case of megavitamin therapy, maybe it is three generations. Great ideas in medicine, or anywhere else, are never self-evident. At least not until a brilliant mind like Dr. Hoffer's sees more than others have seen, and have the courage to speak out in the teeth of some often surprisingly bitter professional adversity. As a college lecturer, I learned some years ago that if you want to clear the department's lunchroom in a hurry, just say something positive about megavitamin therapy.

 

EVERY DOCTOR SHOULD PURCHASE AND READ THE FOLLOWING BOOKS Iodine: Why You Need It, Why You Can't Live Without It ... By Dr. David Brownstine  Hypothyroidism Type 2: The Epidemic by Mark Starr  Hypothyroidism: The Unsuspected Illness by Broda Barnes

You, your family and friends would all be much healthier if they took the following: Everyone in America is low on iodine, magnesium, vitamin D, due to fluorides, bromides and other things in our food that harm the thyroid. Most will need to take desiccated thyroid and adrenaline glandules.

 

Before corticosteroids became available, half of all patients with systemic lupus died within two years. Today, half of the systemic lupus patients with organ-threatening complications survive for 20 years or longer. However, most systemic lupus patients eventually die from infections or from heart disease complicated by long term use of corticosteroids.

 

Lupus, also known as lupus erythematosus, is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder that occurs mostly in women.

Description

Lupus produces widely varying symptoms, although joint pain is reported by most patients and skin lesions are common. Lupus can cause short periods of symptoms alternating with healthy periods or can progress into a life-threatening disorder affecting the heart, kidneys, and other organs.

 

Why the disease is termed lupus is unknown, but it has been known as a distinct disorder and called lupus by European physicians since at least the tenth-century a.d. The term erythematosus was first attached to the disease in the 1850s, and it refers to the patchy congestion of skin capillaries with blood (erythema) that often accompanies the disease.

 

Demographics

Between one million and 1.5 million Americans have some form of lupus. The incidence among women is 10–15 times greater than among men, and it is two to three times more common among African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans than among whites. Lupus most often appears for the first time in women between the ages of 15 and 44. Twenty thousand people die of lupus-related causes in the United States annually.

 

Causes and symptoms

Lupus is an autoimmune disorder, a disease in which the body's immune system turns against the body itself. In a healthy person, the immune system defends against invading organisms but does not, in general, attack the body's own tissues. The cause of lupus is unknown. However, it is known that lupus has a genetic component, which means a predisposition to lupus can be inherited. Approximately 10% of lupus patients have one or more direct relatives with lupus. (Note that this means that 90% of lupus patients have no such relatives; however, it shows a genetic connection because 10% is a much higher figure for familial lupus that can be attributed to chance alone.) Lupus has been definitely linked to genes on chromosome 1 and less certain to genes on chromosomes 4 and 6.

 

Given genetic susceptibility, the disease may either develop spontaneously or be triggered by some environmental factor. Environmental factors known to trigger lupus include infections (e.g., Epstein-Barr virus, which infects 99% of children with lupus, but only 70% of healthy children), antibiotics, ultraviolet light (the rays in sunlight or sunlamp-light that causes sunburn), stress, smoking, certain medications, and hormones (especially estrogen, the female sex hormone).

 

Lupus manifests as a continuum or spectrum of disorders. However, it is common to divide lupus cases into four categories or groups:

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus. This is the most serious form of lupus and affects about 70% of all persons with lupus. It is termed systemic because, in this variety of lupus, the body's immune system attacks one or more essential body systems. Targets may include the brain, kidneys, heart, pancreas, or other organs.

  • Discoid or cutaneous lupus erythematosus. This variety of lupus is less severe, in that it attacks the skin only. However, it can be disfiguring, often attacking the skin of the face. The term discoid is derived from the round (disc-shaped) lesions that appear on the skin. About 10–15% of lupus patients have cutaneous lupus.

  • Drug-induced or drug-related lupus erythematosus. This term refers to lupus that develops after a patient has taken a medication. Medications that can trigger drug-induced lupus include procainamide or hydralazine. Many of the substances that can potentially trigger lupus fall into the class of aromatic amines, or hydrazines. For example, the aromatic amine paraphenylenediamine is present in certain hair dyes and has been associated with lupus or lupus-like syndrome. Tartrazine (a food coloring, FD&C yellow No. 5), which is present in thousands of foods and medications, has also been associated with lupus. Cocaine abuse can induce lupus and several other connective-tissue diseases, as can exposure to certain metals (e.g., mercury). Between 10,000 and 15,000 people are diagnosed with drug-induced lupus annually in the United States.

  • Mixed connective tissue disease. Approximately 10% of patients with lupus also have symptoms of one or more additional connective-tissue diseases.

  •  

The symptoms of lupus are quite varied. In discoid lupus, red patches (erythema) appear symmetrically on the cheeks, possibly extending to the face, neck, scalp, and other parts of the body. No organ other than the skin is affected (or the disease is classified as systemic, rather than discoid). Systemic lupus may begin suddenly, signaled by fever, or develop slowly over months or years. Chronic fatigue is a common symptom. Symptoms related to an impairment of any organ may occur. The lupus disease process in a given organ is named after that organ; for example, inflammation of the kidneys is termed lupus nephritis, and inflammation of the brain is termed lupus cerebritis. Kidney involvement may be fatal. Over 50% of all systemic lupus patients in the United States presently have some degree of lupus cerebritis; 25–75% have neuropsychiatric symptoms at some time in their illness. Symptoms of lupus cerebritis may include headaches, seizures, stroke, psychosis, dementia, peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia (failure of muscular coordination, usually on one side of the body), chorea (jerky, involuntary movements), and others. Duration of central nervous system involvement may be transient (as with a migraine headache ) or long lasting (as with dementia). Stroke incidence is 3–20% in systemic lupus patients and is highest in the first five years of the disease. Peripheral neuropathy (carpal tunnel syndrome, for example) occurs in more than 20% of systemic lupus patients and cranial nerve palsies occur in 10–15%.

 

Exposure to the ultraviolet rays in sunlight can trigger lupus or, in a person who already has the disease, cause it to flare up. Worsening flare-ups of the disease can be life-threatening because they can include inflammation and failure of the kidneys. Also, declining memory and mental sharpness with long-term lupus is common.

Diagnosis

 

Lupus is notoriously difficult to diagnose. Many cases are not diagnosed until the patient has suffered irreversible kidney damage; for patients who do not have an organ-threatening disease, diagnosis takes an average of two years of searching among physicians and conditions. The telltale erythematous skin lumps or rashes that give lupus erythematosus the latter half of its name eventually appear in 90% of systemic lupus patients and all discoid lupus patients, but may not appear early enough in the course of the disease to guarantee a timely diagnosis. Additionally, no single lab test can confirm lupus, although certain antibody tests can help to distinguish lupus from other diseases.

 

Diagnosis of systemic lupus is based on a list of 11 criteria listed by the American College of Rheumatology. If four or more of the 11 criteria are met, a patient is deemed to have systemic lupus. The criteria include discoid or macular rash (often in a classic facial butterfly pattern across the nose and cheeks), photosensitivity, ulcers in the mouth, kidney dysfunction, and the presence of various blood factors such as an anti-DNA antibody or anti-nuclear antibody (an antibody that targets cell nuclei).

 

Approximately 15% of diagnoses of lupus may be misdiagnoses of other disorders, including fibromyalgia, seronegative spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis or Reiter's syndrome, autoimmune thyroiditis, and multiple sclerosis.

 

Although the diagnosis of lupus cerebritis is particularly difficult, even if a patient has lupus, this does not necessarily mean that the neurological symptoms are due to lupus. Imaging studies cannot necessarily distinguish lupus cerebritis, although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are considered helpful. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has a high sensitivity to changes in the brain resulting from lupus cerebritis.

 

Treatment team

As with other neurological diseases in which the spectrum of symptoms varies widely, the treatment team must be designed for each individual case of lupus. A dermatologist will be involved if skin lesions are present; a neurologist, if a cognitive loss is a possibility; a nephrologist will monitor kidney function; and a rheumatologist is often involved because of the frequency of joint pain. Other specialists will be needed depending on what organ systems are affected.

 

Treatment

There is no known cure for lupus. However, there are numerous interventions designed to lessen the severity of the disease. These interventions can be classed as pharmacologic (drug-based) or nonpharmacologic.

Pharmacologic interventions (drug therapies)

 

Five categories of medication are used to treat systemic lupus patients: sunscreens and steroid lotions, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, e.g., acetaminophen or ibuprofen), corticosteroids (e.g., prednisone to suppress the autoimmune response and control inflammation), anti-malarial drugs, and cytotoxic agents (i.e., chemotherapy drugs that are used for cancer, such as methotrexate, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide).

 

Cytotoxic agents are used in order to decrease steroid dosage. Anticoagulants (blood thinners) may also be prescribed. For patients with a non-organ-threatening disease, the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine is often prescribed; prednisone is often prescribed in cases of an organ-threatening disease. New lupus drugs are under investigation; with recent increases in knowledge about the genetic and molecular basis of autoimmune disorders, including lupus, pharmacological treatment breakthroughs are possible at any time.

 

Nonpharmacologic (non-drug) interventions

All persons with lupus should guard against exposure to the sun and use protective clothing, sunscreen, and common sense when going outdoors. Adequate exercise can protect against fatigue, obesity, osteoporosis (weakening of the bones), and hyperlipidemia (excessive fats in the blood plasma). In some cases, dietary restrictions may be helpful, including especially the avoidance of food allergens and foods that may trigger lupus symptoms (such as alfalfa seeds). Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fatty acids have been shown to moderate lupus symptoms in some cases. On the other hand, some dietary supplements such as melatonin and Echinacea can worsen symptoms of some autoimmune diseases.

 

For lupus cerebritis, therapy choices include all the above options for alleviating the disorder throughout the rest of the body. Drug therapy can also include psychotropic medications such as antipsychotics, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines to stabilize mood if this is affected. Unfortunately, long-term use of corticosteroids, one of the mainstays of pharmacological lupus treatment, may itself cause psychiatric symptoms. Experimental investigation of pheresis of cerebrospinal fluid for treatment of lupus cerebritis (cerebrospinal fluid is withdrawn from, filtered, and returned to the patient) was begun in the early 1990s.

Clinical trials

 

As of mid-2004, approximately 25 lupus-related clinical trials were in progress, including investigations of monoclonal antibody therapy, the genetics of lupus, quality-of-life improvement, ultraviolet light therapy, stem-cell transplantation therapy, the mechanisms of kidney and brain damage, and many other aspects of lupus. Updated information on these trials can be found at the National Institutes of Health clinical trials website at <http://www.clinicaltrials.gov> for up-to-date information.

 

Prognosis

Prognosis for the individual patient depends on the severity of the disease process. Lupus can be fully compatible with a normal lifespan or can result in fatal organ failure, depending upon the progression of the disorder in each individual.

 

There is some evidence that lupus may spontaneously resolve in part or whole, or resolve in response to treatment, in some lupus patients who have had the disease long term (i.e., 10 years or more).

Special concerns

 

Psychological counseling may be helpful, given that a diagnosis of lupus is life-altering, and stress and frustration can enhance symptoms while searching for a diagnosis. Genetic counseling may be appropriate, as children of women with lupus have a 10% chance of developing lupus if female and 2% if male, while 20% of offspring overall will develop an autoimmune disorder of some type.

Resources

BOOKS

Phillips, Robert H., et al. Coping with Lupus: A Practical Guide to Alleviating the Challenges of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, 3rd ed. New York: Avery Penguin Putnam, 2001.

Wallace, Daniel J. The Lupus Book: A Guide for Patients and Their Families. New York: Oxford Press, 2000.

PERIODICALS

Marshall, Eliot. "Lupus: Mysterious Disease Holds Its Secrets Tight." Science (April 26, 2002).

Nickens, Candice. "Treating Systemic Lupus Erythematosus." Minority Health Today (July 1, 2000).

Rushing, Jill D. "Managing Organ-threatening Systemic Lupus Erythematosus." MedSurg Nursing (December 1, 2003).

"Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Guidelines for Control." Consultant (February 1, 2000).

OTHER

"NINDS Neurological Sequelae Of Lupus Information Page." National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. April 24, 2004 (June 1, 2004). <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/lupus_doc.htm>.

ORGANIZATIONS

Lupus Foundation of America. 2000 L Street, N.W., Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036. (202) 349-1155; Fax: (202) 349-1156. <http://www.lupus.org/>.

Larry Gilman

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Gilman, Larry. "Lupus." Gale Encyclopedia of Neurological Disorders. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 20 May. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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